Ancient India (Indus Valley)India - The first civilization on the Indian subcontinent sprang up around the Indus Valley region in the northwest corner about 2600 BC. Two cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, have been excavated from that era. The ruins of Harappa have been known for some time and thus has the distinction of having its name applied to the first Indian civilization. The size of those cities was impressive ranging between 30,000 to 40,000, and a number of smaller communities also date to that era. Apart from being slightly younger than Mesopotamia and Egypt, yet still contemporary, not much else is known about Harappan civilization, except that it died out mysteriously around 1800 BC.