Dome of the RockDome of the Rock - A Muslim shrine atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The Muslims captured Jerusalem during their campaign in Byzantine territory (see Battle of Yarmouk). The shrine was built to mark the spot where some Muslims believe Mohammed ascended to Heaven. Not to be confused with the Al-Aqsa Mosque also located on the Temple Mount, the Dome of the Rock was completed in 691 by the Umayyad Caliphate. The Umayyads replaced the Rashidun Caliphate in 661. Its appearance combines Islamic, Byzantine and Persian architecture. The two buildings together (Dome and mosque) make up an area known as al-Haram ash-Sharif which means "Noble Sanctuary". It represents the third most holy site in all Islam. The fact that the Temple Mount (the place where the ancient Temple of Solomon stood) is the most sacred site in Judaism, not to mention that it's considered important to Christians as well, makes it the most hotly contested piece of real estate on earth.