Battle of Actium (31 B.C.)Battle of Actium (31 B.C.) - The battle between Octavian Caesar and Marc Antony which ended years of Roman civil war as well as the Roman Republic.  Marc Antony had fled to Ptolemaic Egypt and formed an alliance with Queen Cleopatra.  The naval engagement was fought off the west coast of Greece and resulted in a victory for Octavian.  Antony and Cleopatra both committed suicide rather than being captured.  With their defeat, there was no one left to oppose Octavian and he became Rome's first official emperor, taking the title Augustus ("the Exalted").