Shishak (ca. 952-930 B.C.)Shishak (ca. 952-930 B.C.) - The importance of Shishak to history is that he is the first pharaoh mentioned in the Bible by name (I Kings 14:25, II Chronicles 12). Prior to that, the king of Egypt had simply been referred to as "pharaoh", leaving us to speculate which one it was. The reason for this change is likely due to the fact that Israel was now a kingdom and had established diplomatic relations with other nations. However, at the time of Shishak, relations between the two were not so good. Egypt invaded Judah (Israel and Judah were now divided) and besieged Jerusalem. Shishak managed to loot the temple and carry its treasures back to Egypt (you may recall this is the basis for the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark). But Jerusalem itself was spared after King Rehoboam paid a ransom for the pharaoh to withdraw. Besides the Biblical account, Shishak (or Sheshonk) records his exploits on the south wall of the Temple of Amon at Karnak. He was likely of Libyan origin as Libyans settled in Egypt towards the end of the New Kingdom. The other pharaohs mentioned by name in the Bible are Tirhakah (in Isaiah), Necho II (in II Kings and II Chronicles) and Hophra (in Jeremiah).